What is Infertility?
Infertility is the inability of a person, animal, or plant to reproduce its own kind by natural means. In humans, it happens when a couple cannot conceive after having regular unprotected sex. Infertility is the result of a disease such as cessation, interruption, or disorder of body functions, systems, or organs of the male or female.
There are no obvious symptoms for infertility except not getting pregnant. Sometimes, an infertile woman may have irregular or absent menstrual cycles. In some cases, a man with infertility may have some signs of hormonal problems including changes in hair growth or sexual function.
Causes of Infertility
We have listed the causes for infertility or reduced fertility as below:
- Poor egg quality and quantity
- Ovulation problems
- Poor sperm quality and quantity
- Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)
- Premature ovarian insufficiency
- Fallopian tube problems
Age is also the main factor of infertility specifically in women. Women are no longer able to become pregnant after menopause which normally occurs at age of 50. In general, reproductive potential decreases in ladies by aging, and fertility can be expected to end 5 to 10 years before menopause.
What is IVF?
IVF stands for In Vitro Fertilization which is one of several medical techniques available in Iran to improve the ability of a woman or couple to conceive a baby. In vitro means “in the lab” and fertilization refers to conception. This is the most common method in treating numerous causes of infertility.
In Vitro Fertilization Cost in Iran
The following chart shows that IVF cost in Iran is much lower compared to other countries.
Prices & Plans
Best service at reasonable price
Type of Fertility Treatment in Iran
Iran is one of the leading destinations and famous for infertility treatment in the world. Iran, enjoying more than 50 top IVF centers and highly qualified specialists, is one of the most suitable hotspots for IVF treatment in the world. It is very important to know that IVF clinics use the most modern cutting-edge technologies at an affordable price. Iran receives many couples from Turkey, Arabic countries, and Indonesia for IVF treatment.
Depending on the type of fertility treatment in Iran, the price might vary accordingly. You can find out the different types of fertility treatments with a brief explanation as follows:
ICSI stands for Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection. It is an in vitro fertilization procedure in which a single sperm cell is injected directly into the cytoplasm of an egg.
ICSI stands for Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection. This is an in vitro fertilization procedure in which a single sperm cell is injected directly into the cytoplasm of an egg and An embryo (fertilized egg) is then transferred into the recipient’s uterus.
ICSI stands for Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection. In this procedure, a single sperm cell is injected directly into the cytoplasm of an egg and Embryo donation is one disposition option for users of in vitro fertilization with remaining fresh or frozen embryos.
ICSI stands for Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection. This is an in vitro fertilization procedure in which a single sperm cell is injected directly into the cytoplasm of an egg and an embryo (fertilized sperm) is then transferred into the recipient’s uterus.
This procedure involves thawing and then transferring the embryo into a woman’s uterus through a catheter for hopeful pregnancy. This procedure is much like a pap smear, does not require any anesthesia, and is painless.
In this process we can preserve eggs, sperm, embryos and even tissue fragments (of ovary and testis) for future use.
PGD, Preimplantation genetic diagnosis, is a genetic test on cells removed from embryos. This procedure will be brought up when there is a genetic condition present in your family. It helps to reduce the risk of passing the condition on to your baby. PGD testing is used during an IVF cycle.
PGS stands for preimplantation genetic screening which it is utilized to remove one or more cells from an in vitro fertilization embryo to test for chromosomal normalcy. This technique provides information about the gene make-up of the cells found in an embryo. In an embryo biopsy, the embryologist removes about 6-8 cells from each day 5 embryo for test.
PGS and PGD are technically the same test in embryos obtained through IVF and the main aim of both tests is to increase the chances of healthy embryo implantation to achieve a successful pregnancy. But the key difference is that PGD detects specific genetic conditions whereas PGS is like a health screening performed on an embryo to assess the general “well-being’ or “state-of-health” of an embryo, without going into specific genetic conditions of that embryo. Both tests perform before implantation.
Microsurgical testicular sperm extraction also known as Micro TESE, is a surgical method performs under general anaesthetic and done through a small incision in the scrotum. Micro TESE is used for men when he cannot produce enough sperm to have a detectable amount in his semen which it is a common cause of male infertility. It is worthy to mention that according to many studies, the micro TESE is safe and yields the highest sperm retrieval rate and causes the least amount of damage to the testis.
Myomectomy is a surgical procedure for women to remove fibroids found in the uterine cavity. Uterine fibroids usually develop during childbearing years, but they may occur at any age.
Laparoscopy, also called keyhole surgery, is a type of surgical procedure that surgeons use to view a woman’s reproductive organs without making large incisions in the skin.
Who Can Benefit From IVF?
IVF is one of the best treatments for infertility but the suitable candidates for IVF are:
- Women who failed to get pregnant via other treatments such as medications and intrauterine insemination (IUI).
- Couples who Experienced difficulty becoming pregnant through sexual intercourse.
- Women with blocked or missing fallopian tubes or other tubal problems.
- Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)
- Male factor infertility
- Unhealthy eggs/sperm or the inability to carry a pregnancy.
In some cases, IVF is not recommended:
- Women with unhealthy eggs that do not want to use a donor
- Women with certain conditions such as fibroid tumors, uterine abnormalities, or ovarian dysfunction which can interfere with IVF success
- Severely obese patients.
Before In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
When to See a Doctor
Generally, you don’t see a doctor about infertility unless you have been trying regularly to get pregnant for at least one year.
Women should see a doctor if:
- They are older than 35 years old and have been trying to conceive for six months or longer
- They experience irregular or absent periods
- They experience very painful periods
- They have undergone treatment for cancer
- They have known fertility problems
- They have been diagnosed with endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease
- They have had multiple miscarriages
Men should see a doctor if:
- They have a sperm problem like low sperm count or other problems
- They have a history of testicular, prostate, or sexual problems
- They have undergone treatment for cancer
- They experience small testicles or swelling in the scrotum
- They have others in the family with infertility problems
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Process
In an IVF procedure, an egg is taken from the woman’s ovaries and fertilized with sperm in a laboratory. The fertilized egg which is called an embryo is returned to the woman’s womb to grow and develop. In another word, IVF is the fertilization of the ovum (ova) and sperm which happens outside the body in a laboratory.
IVF process involves several distinct steps that take place over a period of time. IVF consists of 5 steps We brief it as below:
At first, the woman will be given injection to produce more eggs (ova) than she makes per a month. The medical team will check on the development of the eggs by monitoring through ultrasound and blood tests.
Once the eggs are mature enough, they will be collected from the ovaries via a transvaginal ultrasound-guided needle. On the same day, the fresh sperm will be collected from the male partner.
At this step, the retrieved eggs will become fertilized in a lab through another process which is called ICSI also known as intracytoplasmic sperm injection that is an assisted reproductive technology that involves injecting a single sperm cell into an egg. The eggs will be examined after 16 hours to make sure the fertilization has taken place.
At this step, the embryos start to divide from two cells to four cells and continue dividing. The embryos are allowed to grow for up to 6 days in the lab before being transferred.
The embryologist selects the highest quality embryo and transfers them into the uterus of the woman and she gets pregnant. It is worthy to mention that the implantation may take between 1 to 5 days.
A pregnancy test will be applied 2 weeks after this step to make sure the implantation has been done successfully.
It is very important to know that the success rates of IVF in Iran are high because of skilled specialists and modern clinics. There are many famous infertility centers in different cities of Iran including Tehran, Shiraz, Yazd, and Esfahan which are well-equipped and offer their services to infertile patients by providing them a variety of treatments.
There are many factors that contribute to increasing your chance of having a healthy baby using IVF such as your age and the cause of infertility. In another word, the success rate for women under the age of 35 for getting pregnant is more than for older women.
After The Process
IVF is a painless procedure for most women; however, you may experience mild cramping which is normal. You may also experience constipation and breast tenderness. Most women take back to normal life and resume their daily activities the following day. So, there is no need to worry about it. However, if you experience one of the following symptoms, please contact your doctor immediately:
- Heavy vaginal bleeding
- Pelvic pain
- Blood in the urine
- Fever over 38 °C
Unfortunately, in rare cases, the chance of multiple pregnancies, premature delivery, and low birth weight is increased with IVF.